Oil labelling explained

oilman

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What’s written on your oil bottle and what does it mean.

This post may seem like going back to basics but I am constantly surprised by the amount of people who do not know or understand what is written on a bottle of oil and therefore no idea of what they are buying/using.

To be blunt about the subject, if a bottle of oil does not contain the following basic information then DO NOT buy it look for something that does!

1) The purpose for which it is intended (i.e. Motor oil, Gear oil etc)

2) The viscosity (i.e. 10w-40, 5w-30 etc for Motor oils and 80w-90, 75w-90 etc for Gear oils)

3) The specifications that it meets (should contain both API and ACEA ratings)

4) The OEM Approvals that it carries and the codes (i.e. MB229.3, VW503.00, BMW LL01 etc)

Ignore the marketing blurb on the label it is in many cases meaningless and I will explain later what statements you should treat this with some scepticism

So, what does the above information mean and why is it important?

THE BASICS

All oils are intended for an application and in general are not interchangeable. You would not for example put an Automatic Transmission Oil or a Gear Oil in your engine! It is important to know what the oils intended purpose is.

VISCOSITY

Most oils on the shelves today are “Multigrades”, which simply means that the oil falls into 2 viscosity grades (i.e. 10w-40 etc)

Multigrades were first developed some 50 years ago to avoid the old routine of using a thinner oil in winter and a thicker oil in summer.

In a 10w-40 for example the 10w bit (W = winter, not weight or watt or anything else for that matter) simply means that the oil must have a certain maximum viscosity/flow at low temperature. The lower the “W” number the better the oils cold temperature/cold start performance.

The 40 in a 10w-40 simply means that the oil must fall within certain viscosity limits at 100 degC. This is a fixed limit and all oils that end in 40 must achieve these limits. Once again the lower the number the thinner the oil, a 30 oil is thinner than a 40 oil at 100 degC etc. Your handbook will specify whether a 30, 40 or 50 etc is required.

SPECIFICATIONS

Specifications are important as these indicate the performance of the oil and whether they have met or passed the latest tests or whether the formulation is effectively obsolete or out of date.
There are two specifications that you should look for on any oil bottle and these are API (American Petroleum Institute) and ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Europeens d’Automobiles) all good oils should contain both of these and an understanding of what they mean is important.

API

This is the more basic as it is split (for passenger cars) into two catagories. S = Petrol and C = Diesel, most oils carry both petrol (S) and diesel (C) specifications.

The following table shows how up to date the specifications the oil are:

PETROL

SG - Introduced 1989 has much more active dispersant to combat black sludge.

SH - Introduced 1993 has same engine tests as SG, but includes phosphorus limit 0.12%, together with control of foam, volatility and shear stability.

SJ - Introduced 1996 has the same engine tests as SG/SH, but phosphorus limit 0.10% together with variation on volatility limits

SL - Introduced 2001, all new engine tests reflective of modern engine designs meeting current emissions standards

SM - Introduced November 2004, improved oxidation resistance, deposit protection and wear protection, also better low temperature performance over the life of the oil compared to previous categories.

Note:

All specifications prior to SL are now obsolete and although suitable for some older vehicles are more than 10 years old and do not provide the same level of performance or protection as the more up to date SL and SM specifications.

DIESEL

CD - Introduced 1955, international standard for turbo diesel engine oils for many years, uses single cylinder test engine only

CE - Introduced 1984, improved control of oil consumption, oil thickening, piston deposits and wear, uses additional multi cylinder test engines

CF4 - Introduced 1990, further improvements in control of oil consumption and piston deposits, uses low emission test engine

CF - Introduced 1994, modernised version of CD, reverts to single cylinder low emission test engine. Intended for certain indirect injection engines

CF2 - Introduced 1994, defines effective control of cylinder deposits and ring face scuffing, intended for 2 stroke diesel engines

CG4 - Introduced 1994, development of CF4 giving improved control of piston deposits, wear, oxidation stability and soot entrainment. Uses low sulphur diesel fuel in engine tests

CH4 - Introduced 1998, development of CG4, giving further improvements in control of soot related wear and piston deposits, uses more comprehensive engine test program to include low and high sulphur fuels

CI4 Introduced 2002, developed to meet 2004 emission standards, may be used where EGR ( exhaust gas recirculation ) systems are fitted and with fuel containing up to 0.5 % sulphur. May be used where API CD, CE, CF4, CG4 and CH4 oils are specified.

Note:

All specifications prior to CH4 are now obsolete and although suitable for some older vehicles are more than 10 years old and do not provide the same level of performance or protection as the more up to date CH4 & CI4 specifications.

If you want a better more up to date oil specification then look for SL, SM, CH4, CI4

ACEA

This is the European equivalent of API (US) and is more specific in what the performance of the oil actually is. A = Petrol, B = Diesel and C = Catalyst compatible or low SAPS (Sulphated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulphur).

Unlike API the ACEA specs are split into performance/application catagories as follows:

A1 Fuel economy petrol
A2 Standard performance level (now obsolete)
A3 High performance and/or extended drain
A4 Reserved for future use in certain direct injection engines
A5 Combines A1 fuel economy with A3 performance

B1 Fuel economy diesel
B2 Standard performance level (now obsolete)
B3 High performance and/or extended drain
B4 For direct injection car diesel engines
B5 Combines B1 fuel economy with B3/B4 performance

C1-04 Petrol and Light duty Diesel engines, based on A5/B5-04 low SAPS, two way catalyst compatible.
C2-04 Petrol and light duty Diesel engines, based on A5/B5-04 mid SAPS, two way catalyst compatible.
C3-04 Petrol and light duty Diesel engines, based on A5/B5-04 mid SAPS, two way catalyst compatible, Higher performance levels due to higher HTHS.

Note: SAPS = Sulphated Ash, Phosphorous and Sulphur.

Put simply, A3/B3, A5/B5 and C3 oils are the better quality, stay in grade performance oils.

APPROVALS

Many oils mention various OEM’s on the bottle, the most common in the UK being VW, MB or BMW but do not be misled into thinking that you are buying a top oil because of this.

Oil Companies send their oils to OEM’s for approval however some older specs are easily achieved and can be done so with the cheapest of mineral oils. Newer specifications are always more up to date and better quality/performance than the older ones.

Some of the older OEM specifications are listed here and depending on the performance level of your car are best ignored if you are looking for a quality high performance oil:

VW – 500.00, 501.00 and 505.00

Later specs like 503, 504, 506 and 507 are better performing more up to date oils

MB – 229.1

Later specs like 229.3 and 229.5 are better performing more up to date oils.

BMW – LL98

Later specs like LL01 and LL04 are better performing more up to date oils.


FINALLY

Above is the most accurate guidance I can give without going into too much depth however there is one final piece of advice regarding the labelling.

Certain statements are made that are meaningless and just marketing blurb, here are a few to avoid!

Recommended for use where……………
May be used where the following specifications apply……………
Approved by………………………..(but with no qualification)
Recommended/Approved by (some famous person, these endorsements are paid for)
Racing/Track formula (but with no supporting evidence)

Also be wary of statements like “synthetic blend” if you are looking for a fully synthetic oil as this will merely be a semi-synthetic.

Like everything in life, you get what you pay for and the cheaper the oil the cheaper the ingredients and lower the performance levels.

If you want further advice then please feel free to ask here or contact us through our website at www.opieoils.co.uk.

Cheers
Simon
 

Sprint'n'Go

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All good advice.

Many people must get confused with mercedes in particular as they have their own specs for everything including power steering fluid and brake fluid (Dot 4+????)

Some mercedes gearboxes seem to have an individual oil that is only produced for that box and as you may guess is only available through the main dealers.
 
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oilman

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All Merc oils are available in this country through Fuchs. I know this because I sell them all.

Cheers
Simon
 

mkal369

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Hi,
229.5 engine oils must be used with fleece oil filter designed for use with 229.5 engine oils
what about oil filter using synthetic oil 229.1/229.3 (fuchs Titan Supersyn/ Silkolene Pro S ). May I use a standar one?

Mike
 

Royville

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Hi Oilman,
So is Fuches the main supplier of MB oils?
Is it true that some mercedes gearboxes have an individual oil that is only produced for that box? - If so could you reccomend an ATF for my box (722.421).
Roy
 
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oilman

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Roy,

Fuchs do supply a lot for MB, BMW and VAG in germany for factory fill, these Germans stick together, only if the British had the same loyalty to one and other eh.

For your gearbox, have you any more info on the car, model/year etc.

Cheers

Simon.
 

Royville

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oilman said:
For your gearbox, have you any more info on the car, model/year etc.


Simon,
My car is a C180 Elegance 1996
Chassis - 202
Engine - 111.920
Transmission - 722.421

Roy
 

psmart

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Oilman, have you any good info on judging the

state of used oil, ATF, gear oil and engine oil?

Would be of very good use, if like the excellent advise given in this thread, that descriptions of used oil could be given, specifically identifying when oil has passed its use days.
 

Vito-Man

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Oil & some advice

I have 5 litres of Castrol Magnitec Oil, however it is for petrol engines. My Vito does need a service, would it be ok to use this oil? Is there much difference between Diesel & Petrol Magnitec? I only have Diesel motors now, so it seems a waste to bin it.

Sorry if this is a dumb question, though I am new to this oil malarky:p
 
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oilman

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It should be fine, have a look on the back of the can and see if it meets any ACEA B3 specs, that is the diesel spec, most oils now are for both regardless of what they might say on the tin.

Cheers

Guy.
 

big x

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Royville said:
Hi Oilman,
So is Fuches the main supplier of MB oils?
Is it true that some mercedes gearboxes have an individual oil that is only produced for that box? - If so could you reccomend an ATF for my box (722.421).
Roy

No,they are one of them. If you go to the various makers websites you can check the compatibility charts per application.

adam
 

muso58

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also worth mentioning ,that cheap oils often have specs on container ,that arent true .always buy a good brand of oil .dont just trust api numbers etc
 

Ayjay

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So in plain english which oil should my o3 plate 110 cdi use:confused:
 

acaan

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gearbox oil

Hi

I've been told I need to add some gearbox oil to my 1988 420SL auto. I have also been told that I do not need to buy the gearbox oil from Mercedes, but can use any Dex 3 oil. Is this a good idea or should I just buy it from Mercedes (it's obviously more expensive from MB) Thanks for your help
 

C220GJS

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Your gearbox was originally filled with Dexron2 so any good quality Dexron3 oil will be suitable.
 

twebber

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Recently there's been a number of lengthly threads about the quality ( or rather lack thereof) of the latest API-SM oils on a porsche site (www.pelicanparts.com). These threads are concentrated in the air-cooled forum. These 911's have between 9 and 11 quarts capacity. The biggest complaint has been from racers, engineers and engine builders who are finding increased wear from the same oil in SM specs over the older SL spec'd oil. The belief is that an often significant reduction in Zinc and Phosphorus (Zn and P or ZDDP) is responsible for the increased wear.

The threads are long and involved but one key point for reducing Zn and P is that they have a negative impact on catalytic converters. However, people are balancing this cost against the cost of engine rebuilds. All very interesting and maybe applicable for old Mercedes cars too.

Here's a good bit on motor oil from a contributor on the Pelican site. http://www.lnengineering.com/oil.html
 
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